[113], Alan B. McCullough has written that the fishing industry of the Great Lakes got its start "on the American side of Lake Ontario in Chaumont Bay, near the Maumee River on Lake Erie, and on the Detroit River at about the time of the War of 1812". The entire crew of 23 drowned, except one, Charles Pitz, who floated on a life raft for almost seven hours.[127]. The Lake Superior shipwreck coast from Grand Marais, Michigan, to Whitefish Point became known as the "Graveyard of the Great Lakes". [34] The second-largest island is Isle Royale in Lake Superior. [14] At least two human water use activities have been identified as having the potential to affect the lakes' levels: diversion (the transfer of water to other watersheds) and consumption (substantially done today by the use of lake water to power and cool electric generation plants, resulting in evaporation). Possible schemes for bottled water plants and diversion to dry regions of the continent raise concerns. [119] In the first half of the 20th century large luxurious passenger steamers sailed the lakes in opulence. The largest Lake Erie bloom to date occurred in 2015, exceeding the severity index at 10.5 and in 2011 at a 10. Water Resources Development Act", Agreement. An Indian name for Lake Superior was "Kitchi gami" (or "Kitchi-gummi"). [109] Following a small uproar, the Senate voted to revoke the designation on March 24 (although New York and Vermont universities would continue to receive funds to monitor and study the lake). Still missing are the two last warships to sink in the Great Lakes, the French minesweepers, Inkerman and Cerisoles, which vanished in Lake Superior during a blizzard in 1918. How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? In 1996 a rare tropical or subtropical storm was observed forming in Lake Huron, dubbed the 1996 Lake Huron cyclone. New York and Wisconsin's jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and each of the remaining states into one of the lakes. Great Lakes, chain of deep freshwater lakes in east-central North America comprising Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. More vessels have been lost in the Whitefish Point area than any other part of Lake Superior. The smallest and shallowest lake is Lake Erie. As of 2007, four car ferry services cross the Great Lakes, two on Lake Michigan: a steamer from Ludington, Michigan, to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and a high speed catamaran from Milwaukee to Muskegon, Michigan, one on Lake Erie: a boat from Kingsville, Ontario, or Leamington, Ontario, to Pelee Island, Ontario, then onto Sandusky, Ohio, and one on Lake Huron: the M.S. To easily remember their names, think of the word HOMES - it is made up of the first letter of each lake. Because of the location of the coal fields in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the general northeast track of the Appalachian Mountains, railroads naturally developed shipping routes that went due north to ports such as Erie, Pennsylvania and Ashtabula, Ohio. Most Great Lakes trade is of bulk material, and bulk freighters of Seawaymax-size or less can move throughout the entire lakes and out to the Atlantic. 69-77. Concerns by the mid-19th century included obstructions in the rivers which prevented salmon and lake sturgeon from reaching their spawning grounds. The names of the great lakes are Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie. These lakes contain approximately 84 percent of North America's surface water and are the home to more than 3,500 species of plants and animals. The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures to some degree, but not with as large an influence as do large oceans; they absorb heat and cool the air in summer, then slowly radiate that heat in autumn. The outflows from lakes Superior and Ontario are regulated, while the outflows of Michigan-Huron and Erie are not regulated at all. As the surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, and Erie are all approximately the same elevation above sea level, while Lake Ontario is significantly lower, and because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are commonly called the "upper great lakes". [5] By surface area, Lake Superior is the second-largest lake in the world and the largest freshwater lake. Running cut logs down the tributary rivers into the Great Lakes also dislocated sediments. First we memorized the names of the Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie) and then we used the mnemonic SHO ME (pronounced "show me") to remember their locations. It was more economical to transport the ingredients for steel to centralized plants rather than try to make steel on the spot. Historically, the Great Lakes, in addition to their lake ecology, were surrounded by various forest ecoregions (except in a relatively small area of southeast Lake Michigan where savanna or prairie occasionally intruded). Since general freight these days is transported by railroads and trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore, coal and limestone for the steel industry. The water level in Lake Ontario has remained relatively constant in the same time period, hovering around the historical average level. In 1884, the New York Fish Commission determined that the dumping of sawmill waste (chips and sawdust) had impacted fish populations. Though the five lakes lie in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. Lake Erie - 9,910 square miles Land below the glaciers "rebounded" as it was uncovered. The states have removed dams from rivers where necessary. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that the economic impact of the zebra mussel could be about $5 billion over the next decade. [91] In early August 2019, satellite images depicted a bloom stretching up to 1,300 square kilometres on Lake Erie, with the heaviest concentration near Toledo, Ohio. [56] Traversing the shoreline of all the lakes would cover a distance roughly equivalent to travelling half-way around the world at the equator.[14]. Instance hypernyms: group; grouping (any number of entities (members) considered as a unit). Fact number 3: Historically, the Métis have a tendency to be mobile, and for this reason they established communities that move and cover an extended territory However, the names of other four lakes have Native American origins, to some degree. [14] The source of water levels in the lakes is tied to what was left by melting glaciers when the lakes took their present form. An alternate track is via the Illinois River (from Chicago), to the Mississippi, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway (a combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canals), to Mobile Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. 110. Thirty and a half useful facts worth knowing about the Great Lakes Métis. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, and finally northward to Lake Ontario. [12] There are also several thousand smaller lakes, often called "inland lakes", within the basin. [71] The last commercial fisherman left Milwaukee in 2011 because of overfishing and anthropogenic changes to the biosphere. While enormous public investments such as the Deep Tunnel projects in Chicago and Milwaukee have greatly reduced the frequency and volume of these events, they have not been eliminated. Local sewage treatment authorities then must release untreated effluent, a mix of rainwater and sewage, into local water bodies. Cyprus sank during a Lake Superior storm on October 11, 1907, during its second voyage while hauling iron ore from Superior, Wisconsin, to Buffalo, New York. Algae such as diatoms, along with other phytoplankton, are photosynthetic primary producers supporting the food web of the Great Lakes,[97] and have been effected by global warming. A large bloom does not necessarily mean the cyanobacteria ... will produce toxins", said Michael McKay, of the University of Windsor. These fish are all long and somewhat serpentine in appearance, and may account for some of the ‘monster’ sightings. What Are the Names of the Five Great Lakes? Its range, which has expanded to Lake Huron, poses a significant threat to the lower lake fishery. No one of the Lakes is larger than Lake Baikal (Russia) or Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). If you can remember the word HOMES, you can use that to remind you that the names of the lakes are Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior. The lakes are prone to sudden and severe storms, in particular in the autumn, from late October until early December. Four of the Great Lakes are on the border between Canada and the United States of America. [54], The total surface area of the lakes is approximately 94,250 square miles (244,100 km2)—nearly the same size as the United Kingdom, and larger than the U.S. states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire combined. It is the smallest … Some of these forests are second or third growth (i.e. Köppen climate classification Dfa (in southern areas) and Dfb (in northern parts)[61] with varying influences from air masses from other regions including dry, cold Arctic systems, mild Pacific air masses from the West, and warm, wet tropical systems from the south and the Gulf of Mexico. In the 19th century and early 20th centuries, iron and other ores such as copper were shipped south on (downbound ships), and supplies, food, and coal were shipped north (upbound). [117] A few small cruise ships operate on the Great Lakes including a couple of sailing ships. "[66], By 1801, the New York Legislature found it necessary to pass regulations curtailing obstructions to the natural migrations of Atlantic salmon from Lake Erie into their spawning channels. In August 2007, the Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society announced that it had found the wreckage of Cyprus, a 420-foot (130 m) long, century-old ore carrier. As the slightly warmer, moist air passes over the colder land surface, the moisture often produces concentrated, heavy snowfall that sets up in bands or "streamers". The Great Lakes have been observed to help intensify storms, such as Hurricane Hazel in 1954, and the 2011 Goderich, Ontario tornado, which moved onshore as a tornadic waterspout. A select list of the top 3 to 5 major lakes per region with links to more detailed region lists of lakes. Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered "upbound" even though they are sailing toward its effluent current.[24]. (1977), "Studies on the Autecology of the Marine Diatom, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Great Lakes Areas of Concern § Invasive species, Category:Fauna of the Great Lakes region (North America), Flora of the Great Lakes region (North America), Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Great Storms of the North American Great Lakes, Great Recycling and Northern Development Canal, List of municipalities on the Great Lakes, Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge, "LUHNA Chapter 6: Historical Landcover Changes in the Great Lakes Region", "Great Lakes: Basic Information: Physical Facts", "The Top Ten: The Ten Largest Lakes of the World", "Largest Lakes in the World by Area, Volume and Depth". [69] By 1900, commercial fishermen on Lake Michigan were hauling in an average of 41 million pounds of fish annually. Census Office [73], Introductions into the Great Lakes include the zebra mussel, which was first discovered in 1988, and quagga mussel in 1989. By the mid-1980s, most jurisdictions bordering the Great Lakes had controlled phosphate detergents,[88] resulting in sharp reductions in the frequency and extent of the blooms. This is a result of significant expenditures to date on both infrastructure and technology, and robust regulatory systems that have proven to be, on the whole, quite effective. What I mean by “some degree” is that for example Lake Huron name comes from a French name of Native American Indian tribe inhabiting the area. [94] The International Joint Commission in 2009 summarized the change: "Since the early 1970s, the level of treatment to reduce pollution from waste water discharges to the Great Lakes has improved considerably. This led to the launch of the bi-national Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Together, these lakes span more than 750 miles and provide water for a variety of uses, including consumption, power and transportation, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. This valuable resource is collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to the lakes, who have agreed to the Great Lakes Compact to regulate water supply and use. Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The greatest concentration of shipwrecks lies near Thunder Bay (Michigan), beneath Lake Huron, near the point where eastbound and westbound shipping lanes converge. For the African Great Lakes, see, Large bays and related significant bodies of water. In the early 21st century, Lake Superior's shores are 91% forested, Lake Huron 68%, Lake Ontario 49%, Lake Michigan 41%, and Lake Erie, where logging and urbanization has been most extensive, 21%. A Jesuit name, Lac Tracy, was never officially adopted. [14], Intensive human population growth began in the region in the 20th century and continues today. Because of their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have long been called inland seas. Mercury compounds have been used in paper mills to prevent slime from forming during their production, and chemical companies have used mercury to separate chlorine from brine solutions. Not coincidentally, this status allows neighboring states to apply for additional federal research and education funds allocated to these national resources. More on Lake Superior This is a laker with a conveyor belt system that can unload itself by swinging a crane over the side. Of the total 10,500 miles (16,900 km) of shoreline, Canada borders approximately 5,200 miles (8,400 km), while the remaining 5,300 miles (8,500 km) are bordered by the United States. great lakes The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater seas located in eastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Reference Map of the Great Lakes. In addition, the mussels may be a nuisance to industries by clogging pipes. At least 13 wildlife species are documented as becoming extinct since the arrival of Europeans, and many more are threatened or endangered. Related to the lake effect is the regular occurrence of fog over medium-sized areas, particularly along the shorelines of the lakes. Both served as training ships to qualify naval aviators in carrier landing and takeoff. Although the Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway make the Great Lakes accessible to ocean-going vessels,[37] shifts in shipping to wider ocean-going container ships—which do not fit through the locks on these routes—have limited container shipping on the lakes. [130] The International Joint Commission was established in 1909 to help prevent and resolve disputes relating to the use and quality of boundary waters, and to advise Canada and the United States on questions related to water resources. A "major" lake is defined as that which is the largest by area, depth, volume, or cultural and/or environmental significance. [81], Scientists understand that the micro-aquatic life of the lakes is abundant, but know very little about some of the most plentiful microbes and their environmental effects in the Great Lakes. During settlement, the Great Lakes and its rivers were the only practical means of moving people and freight. National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy.[39]. Many of the larger cities owe their existence to their position on the lakes as a freight destination as well as for being a magnet for immigrants. The surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region, which includes the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[11]. The lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers and contain approximately 35,000 islands. The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book (1972) noted: "Only pockets remain of the once large commercial fishery. Please select all that apply: A link, button or video is not working. The goby is considered undesirable for several reasons: it preys upon bottom-feeding fish, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple times a season, and can survive poor water quality conditions. Sanson improved upon Champlain’s map (and dismantled the “Grand Lac” belief—aka the idea that Lake Michagan and Superior were cojoined and formed a massive lake) by using Jesuit accounts of the area, in addition to observations made by Aboriginals, Étienne Brûlé, and Jean Nicollet. This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 14:31. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v. 1. 62, Iss. Logging, urbanization, and agriculture uses have changed that relationship. Immigrants often formed their own communities and some areas have a pronounced ethnicity, such as Dutch, German, Polish, Finnish, and many others. Ships that primarily trade on the lakes are known as lakers. Background Geology of the North Bay area. [14] Meanwhile, exotic and invasive species have also been introduced. Caught in a 1679 storm while trading furs between Green Bay and Michilimacinac, she was lost with all hands aboard. Meanwhile, exotic and invasive species have also been introduced. [90] "Not enough is being done to stop fertilizer and phosphorus from getting into the lake and causing blooms," said Michael McKay, executive director of the Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER) at the University of Windsor. [116] The iron ore and much of the stone and coal are used in the steel industry. Moreover, the portions and positions of the Great Lakes are more or less accurate. Meronyms (parts of "Great Lakes"): Erie; Lake Erie (the 4th largest of the Great Lakes; it is linked to the Hudson River by the New York State Barge Canal). Report a problem or mistake on this page. [70] The population of giant freshwater mussels was eliminated as the mussels were harvested for use as buttons by early Great Lakes entrepreneurs. Description: This map shows lakes, cities, towns, states, rivers, main roads and secondary roads in Great Lakes Area. This corresponds to thinking of lakes Erie and Ontario as "down south" and the others as "up north". Ships, no matter the size, are called boats. The rest are partially in Canada and the USA. Great Lakes-St Lawrence River Basin Water Resources, "Great Lakes Restoration Initiative home page", The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, Estimate of Ground Water in Storage in the Great Lakes Basin, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Binational website of USEPA and Environment Canada for Great Lakes Water Quality, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory website, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Echo, a publication covering Great Lakes environmental issues, Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Lakes&oldid=1000534627, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with text in Iroquoian languages, Articles containing Wyandot-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Popular Science Monthly, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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