The group, which prosecutors defined as a mafia-style association, had siphoned off millions of euros intended to fund public services. Many of the Nigerian women and girls rescued from the smugglers’ boats by charities or coastguard vessels are from small villages around Benin City. “There was never enough food, and we managed to film the food that was on offer,” he said. ... “This involves many cities including Turin, Milan, Genoa, Rome, Naples and Palermo and thousands of Nigerian and Italian people. Cara di Mineo, like the Sant’Anna asylum centre in Isola di Capo Rizzuto in Calabria, and others on the mainland, has also become a hunting ground for traffickers. Last year, Catania’s chief prosecutor, Carmelo Zuccaro, tried to make it illegal for NGO charity ships to rescue migrants at sea and bring them to Italian shores. Posing as asylum seekers, traffickers lure women out of the centre on the pretext of shopping trips or other excursions, and deliver them to the Nigerian women who control forced prostitution rings. “There was a group of men standing there watching this. She was wearing a faded denim jacket over a crisp white T-shirt and tight jeans, and six or seven strings of colourful beads were wrapped around her neck. fellow countrymen in the event of running ino trouble with According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, human trafficking in Italy is the third source of income for criminal organizations, after arms and drugs trade. The theory is that if a woman realises that the penalty for refusing to prostitute herself is gang rape, she will likely agree that roadside sex is a better alternative. A seafront sprawl 30 miles (48 km) north of Naples, the ramshackle town began life in the Etruscan age - before the Roman empire - and was a popular summer playground for Neapolitans during the 1970s. There is no cleaning service other than in the administrative and kitchen areas. In 2016, Maccarrone, who previously ran the migrant reception centre on the island of Lampedusa, came under criminal investigation for corruption at Cara di Mineo. The woman who answered the phone told her to apply for political asylum using a fake name and birthdate, and never to give the phone number she had just called to anyone. Italy has an estimated 1.5 million unregistered workers, who were particularly vulnerable to labor trafficking. They are then forced into sex work under the threat of violence, most of them – like Joy – terrorised by a curse that binds them into slavery. When the migrants got off the boat, an armed military policeman in a bulletproof vest stood guard as another patted them down and took knives from some of the men. their home country and would be substituted temporarily by their The minimum age for consensual sex is 14 or 13 if the partner is under the age of 18 and the age gap is less than three years. The conditions are deplorable. She had no papers or passport. Licciardi was referred to as La Madrina by fellow Camorristi and earned the nickname La Piccolina early on in her criminal career, due to her diminutive … It was built for officers stationed at the Sigonella naval air base about 40km away. The buildings are overrun by cockroaches and rats that feed off festering piles of garbage, while mangy, flea-infested dogs duck in and out of holes in the razor-wire fence. The investigators say that in 2016 she was waiting for three young women to make their way to Naples from Cara di Mineo. Once Joy was taken off the bus in the reception centre with the other passengers, she was given a bed in a villa with 10 Nigerian women around her age. In December 2016, four Nigerian asylum seekers were arrested in Cara di Mineo, accused of drugging and raping a female resident. “Trafficking in Persons”… mean[s] the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another perso… In 2012, an investigation was opened into forced prostitution at Cara di Mineo, after doctors at the centre received a series of requests for abortions. Six of the suspects are Albanian nationals and one Italian. The farmers call them ragazzo or “boy”, demanding they turn around or show them how straight their backs are. Another big money spinner for the Camorra is the drug trade. A number of people were arrested in … I caught up with Joy by email thanks to a local anti-trafficking advocate in Sicily who took an interest in her case and acted as a liaison with the court. Joy asked how she would know who was picking her up. Later I would regret not trying to warn her in a more concrete way. I wished her good luck and gave her my phone number, which she saved in her phone before walking through the sliding metal gate back inside the centre. He convinced her to help them catch the people who had trafficked her, and her evidence became key to the operation’s success. Instead of working for a hairdresser, she fell into the trap set by traffickers who lure women into slavery and prostitution. IT00876481003 - © Copyright ANSA - All rights reserved, ANSA certification for the production, distribution and publication of news in multimedia format, COVID-19: 477 more deaths in 24 hours, 16,146 new cases, One million vaccinations done in Italy says Conte, Bank of Italy cuts 2021 growth forecast to 3.5%, COVID: Risk of uncontrolled epidemic has risen says ISS, ++ Most of Italy set to be an orange zone ++, Cinema: Bong Joon-ho to be president of Venice jury, Almost all of Italy set to be an orange zone. When the gangs discovered there was a demand, madams recruited more women from Nigeria to the area. The women were brought to Italy from Albania, often Once migrants apply for asylum, they can come and go from the centre at designated times, while they wait for word about their application, which can take months. Th… Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, and Eastern Europe, and include ethnic Roma. he complex that houses Cara di Mineo was built in 2005 by the Pizzarotti Company of Parma, which is still the primary contractor for US defence logistics in Italy. Joy, a young Nigerian woman, was standing in the street outside the sprawling, overcrowded Cara di Mineo reception centre for asylum seekers in central Sicily, waiting for someone to pick her up when I met her. There are other incidentals, including room, board, clothing and rent for the space on the pavement from which they solicit sex. Murder rates are the highest in the country, and locals call it Beirut, or the Bronx. Sergio Nazzaro, a local journalist, says it is the Camorra’s graveyard. More than 400 villas were built to accommodate the standard family of five. Before they’ve even started work, they will owe around €60,000 (£53,000). oy, a young Nigerian woman, was standing in the street outside the sprawling, overcrowded Cara di Mineo reception centre for asylum seekers in central Sicily, waiting for someone to pick her up when I met her. She is joining Prince Charles on his European tour. This is one of the reasons trafficked women have been allowed to leave so easily: their names tend to stay on the lists, and the centres continue to receive funding. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit foreign victims in Italy. The car she was waiting for was never going to take her to a hairdressing job. and monitored by one of their 'seniors'. Some aid groups have since tried handing out condoms. “The crimes continue to get more violent, and the growing disregard for life is a clear sign of a deteriorating situation.”. Pipeline: Photo essay shows human trafficking in Italy. In this context, Cara stands for centro di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo, or asylum seekers reception centre; cara also means “dear” in Italian, but Mineo is not a place that makes people who have risked everything for a new chance at life feel cherished. If they fail, they are given a slip of paper that says they have five days to leave the country, but no means to do so. 228 of 11 August 2003 entitled “Measures against trafficking in persons” and on Article 18 of Legislative Decree 286 of 1998 (Immigration law). Those in charge of the smaller centres then use the names to claim daily allowances. Human trafficking, also called trafficking in persons, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially.Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. The woman who answered the phone told her to apply for political asylum using a fake name and birthdate, and never to give the phone number she had just called to anyone. P.I. The incentive to return each night runs beyond food and shelter. and Italy and exploiting prostitution in Naples. Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, and Eastern Europe, and include ethnic Roma. Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, and Eastern Europe. Italian justice. It is a degrading display, made worse by the fact that they are paid a mere fraction of what Italians would be paid for the same work. A gold chain hung from her left wrist, a gift from her mother. Most of them had come to Italy to work in hair salons, and all had contact numbers to call. igerian girls who are trafficked directly to madams in Naples and elsewhere are forced to do sex work to pay off large debts. As we spoke, a dark car came into view and she took a couple of steps away from me to make sure whoever was driving saw her, and saw that she was alone. At that time, the complex was completely locked down, and the mostly Tunisian and Moroccan migrants were held until they were repatriated. An Italian court has sentenced a Romanian man to 20 years in prison for human trafficking after a Guardian investigation revealed that thousands of women from Romania were being raped and used as forced labour on farms in Sicily. In 2017, anti-mafia police arrested 68 people, including the local parish priest, in the Calabrian town of Isola di Capo Rizzuto, where one of the country’s largest migrant and refugee reception centres has been in operation for more than a decade. Verzera’s investigation into criminal activity at the centre turned up inconsistencies in the record-keeping of who was living there. I asked her if she knew that a lot of girls like her ended up as sex workers. They started using traffickers to trick them into coming, eventually expanding the trade further north to Italy’s larger cities and into Europe. Most of the trafficked women end up with fake documents provided by Italian organised-crime groups. Nigerian girls who are trafficked directly to madams in Naples and elsewhere are forced to do sex work to pay off large debts. She was one of the most powerful bosses of the Camorra in the city of Naples from 1993 until her arrest in 2001. During the investigation, one of the alleged bosses of the group, Salvatore Buzzi, was caught on a wiretap bragging about how much money he made off the backs of asylum seekers. Roadmap to Hell: Sex Drugs and Guns on the Mafia Coast by Barbie Latza Nadeau is published by Oneworld. (The investigation is ongoing, and no trial date has been set. She applied for asylum the morning after she arrived, using her own birth date and the name of her younger sister. The Albanian suspects allegedly maintained close ties with I admitted that I hadn’t known exactly what to do. Italian authorities did not pay much attention to them at the time, but they were not ignored by the Camorra. Local farmers come in pick-up trucks, looking for i neri (“the blacks”), choosing the biggest and strongest for casual labour, harvesting tomatoes and citrus fruits. She was given €45 (£40) and a phone number to call once she got to Italy – but no name, no address, and no documents. When asylum requests are rejected, applicants have one chance to appeal. The same year, during the height of the Arab spring, Silvio Berlusconi’s government decided to lease the complex as an asylum “hot spot”, for processing the growing number of asylum seekers coming to Italy. The centre was, on paper, far over capacity, and received extra funds to help with the overload when, in reality, they were taking care of far fewer people than the documents stated. Gen Giuseppe Governale, chief of the anti-mafia forces, said the centre was a lucrative source of funds for the Calabrian mafia, the ‘Ndrangheta. Torn-up shreds of those papers are a common sight in the ditches beside the road near the centre. A futher two … “Do you have any idea how much I earn on immigrants?” he was heard telling an associate. Eventually, she had to go back inside the compound, or risk missing her evening meal. Several centres have become the subject of criminal investigations, revealing corruption at local and state level, and infiltration by powerful crime syndicates. She remembered our conversation outside Cara di Mineo. A few weeks later, she was told she was moving to Italy, where she would work for her maman’s sister. Italy figured in last two sub-routes as one of the main country in the illicit drug trafficking. Accommodation blocks are often so overcrowded that people have to sleep on the floor or in tents. Why didn’t you tell me what was going to happen?”. Italy prohibits all forms of trafficking in persons through its 2003 Measures Against Trafficking in Persons law, which prescribes penalties of eight to 20 years’ imprisonment. Many of those first prostitutes eventually became madams, controlled by Nigerian drug-smuggling gangs, who had to pay protection money to the Camorra to operate on their territory. After three days, a man Joy didn’t recognise came to find her in the camp and told her she was to wait at a roundabout down the road from the entrance every morning, and eventually someone would come for her. In total, we reached almost 2,000,000 people in these locations. Low-level members of Italy’s various mafia organisations and Nigerian gangs come to the centre to recruit drug mules and petty criminals among the bored, idle men who have given up on the life they dreamed of when they crossed the sea. The UN's International Organisation for Migration estimates 80 per cent of the Nigerian women and girls arriving by sea are likely to be victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in Italy. Among those arrested were Nigerian women who worked with what were termed “connection men” inside the camp. The women arrested in Castel Volturno included Irene Ebhoadaghe, 44, who called herself Mummy Shade. A seafront sprawl 30 miles (48 km) north of Naples, the ramshackle town began life in the Etruscan age - before the Roman empire - and was a popular summer playground for Neapolitans during the 1970s. By Barbie Latza Nadeau, Last modified on Tue 28 Apr 2020 14.37 EDT. He maintains he is innocent, and is working as a volunteer at one of the smaller migrant centres in Catania while he awaits trial. The Italian government has criminalised human trafficking in line with international definition in article 601 of its penal code, as amended by Legislative Decree No. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit foreign victims in Italy. Once again, her ride had not come. In March 2007, the Ministry of Interior established a committee designed to improve oversight and prosecution of trafficking and invited NGOs into the policy making process by including their membership on this committee. The bar is now the medical centre, and the restaurant a canteen where migrants pick up rations of rice and bananas. She was wearing a faded denim jacket over a crisp white T-shirt and tight jeans, and six or seven strings of colourful beads were wrapped around her neck. ROME --Precious survived a trip across North Africa and two sinking boats before making it to Italy, ... Organization for Migration's 2017 report on human trafficking. human trafficking A growing number of Chinese immigrants are being trafficked into Italy to work in inhumane conditions at the country’s garment factories or … TRAFFICKING PROFILE As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit foreign victims in Italy. Experts believe the overall number of trafficking victims in Italy is increasing due to the dramatic rise in migrants and asylum seekers arriving by boat escaping war and oppressive political, social, or economic conditions. The playground equipment scattered throughout the compound is rusty and in disrepair, now mostly used by men in their 20s who sit on the swings and lie on the slides, whiling away the long hours. Most migrants live in another former military residential development, now dilapidated and controlled by the Camorra, who charge rent to squatters and trafficked women. She believed she would be working in a hair salon. “They probably had no choice,” she said as she looked down the road toward the thick citrus groves that hid the coming traffic. She had since come to suspect that her parents had sold her to raise money for their younger children. Those turned down are easy bait for criminal gangs working inside the camps, who get paid for providing mafia groups with illegal cheap labour, running drugs and arms or working in the many industries those groups have infiltrated. As they leave, they are quickly replaced. After an appalling journey, via Tripoli, which took nearly three weeks, Joy arrived at the port of Augusta on Sicily’s east coast. The alarm about radicalisation overshadowed the fact that criminal groups are recruiting migrants from the camps for forced or low-paid labour. people allegedly involved in human trafficking between Albania nce Joy was taken off the bus in the reception centre with the other passengers, she was given a bed in a villa with 10 Nigerian women around her age. Most of the villas house 15 to 20 people, sleeping in bunk beds or on mattresses on floors. When Joy turned 16, she went through a ceremony that bound her to the maman by a curse: if she disobeyed the maman, her family would die. The new arrivals were divided into groups and put on buses. Before they’ve even started work, they will owe around €60,000 (£53,000). The priest has denied the charges and claims he has always fought against the mafia.). There was a baseball diamond and American football field, along with a non-denominational house of worship that doubled as a cinema. Teens believe they escaped a sex trafficking ring after being attacked in Naples, Italy. The Camorra Alongside Calabria's ’Ndrangheta, Sicily's Cosa Nostra and Puglia's Sacra Corona Unita, Campania's Camorra is one of Italy's four main organised-crime syndicates. If we assume half of the estimated 11,000 Nigerian girls who came to Italy in 2016 generated €60,000 each through debt bondage for the madams’ gangs, the profits off those girls alone would top €300m (£264m), even after their travel costs are deducted. The recreation room is now a makeshift school, and offices have become dormitories. In three months, the centre’s doctors performed 32 abortions on migrants – an increase of more than 200% on the year before. Joy still had her jacket with the phone number sewn inside. Nigerian women working as prostitutes in Turin, Italy. House of worship that doubled as a cinema she would work her way up Mineo, of! Are claimed by the Camorra is the drug trade she would be working in a salon! 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